Cannulae are used in laparoscopic surgery and other minimally invasive procedures (MIS) to create small, puncture-like incisions in the outer tissues. These incisions allow the surgeon to insert a cannula through which surgical instruments can be introduced with faster recovery times and minimal patient discomfort than traditional open surgery.
Although the use of trocar needles is thought to date back thousands of years, they emerged in the early 19th century and, as a result of years of research on trocar needles, Reginald Southey invented the Southey tube. As a result, trocar needles have become available as a medical device. Surgical trocar needles continue to be used in modern times as a single patient use tool for laparoscopic procedures.
Currently, laparoscopic surgery, also known as closed surgery, is used primarily for the treatment of abdominal diseases. During this procedure, a medical device called a surgical trocar is used to make a small incision in the abdominal area. The surgical trocar needle has been developed and promoted in a very short period of time because of its superior advantages over open surgery. It also clearly demonstrates that patients recover more quickly.
During minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery, the surgical trocar needle does not require a large incision. The surgical trocar needle has a sterile component that allows multiple surgical devices or camera ports to pass through the abdominal area simultaneously. During a laparoscopic procedure lasting less than 24 hours, it is in contact with soft tissue during the procedure and leaves the body at the end of the procedure.
The surgical trocar is placed at several different points, one end inside the abdomen and one end outside the abdomen. In this way, the camera and light source are sent to the abdominal cavity, allowing the surgeon to follow the abdomen on the screen during the laparoscopic procedure.
Surgical trocar needles vary depending on the surgeon's choice and method of use, and are also preferred as disposable surgical trocar needles due to the ease of use and safety of use they provide to the surgeon. In addition, disposable surgical trocar needles are commonly used as minimally invasive laparoscopic procedures in gynecologic, general, and urologic endoscopic procedures.
The following steps should be followed when using disposable surgical trocar needles.
First, the trocar needle is inserted at an appropriate angle by creating a pneumoperitoneum in the abdomen and taking into account the patient's weight; less force should be applied to the trocar needle during placement to prevent injury to the internal structures.
The obturator is placed inside the trocar needle cannula; this step must be performed before the trocar needle penetrates the skin incision.
The upper part of the obturator is held in the palm of the hand and tightened. Thus, the trocar needle is activated by unlocking the blade guard.
The upper part of the obturator continues to be tightened throughout the skin incision. In addition, continuous downward pressure should be applied as the trocar needle is inserted.
If a blade surgical trocar needle is used, a red blade indicator indicates the position of the blade guard. Thus, when the abdominal or chest space is reached, the shield closes the linear blade and locks into place.
After the entire procedure is completed, the air is vented and the valve is opened parallel to the luer fitting. The cannula is removed by gently rotating it from its fixed position.
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